Schizophrenia is a kind of most common psychosis characterized by the change of basic personality, the split of thinking, emotion and behavior, and the disharmony between mental activity and environment. According to the survey data in six districts of the United States, the incidence of adult is 0.43 to 0.69 per thousand, and 0.30 to 1.20 per thousand (Babigian, 1975) over the age of 15. In some areas of China, 0.09 per thousand. According to the international schizophrenia Survey (IPSS), 20 centers in 18 countries have been reported for over a decade. The annual incidence rate of schizophrenia in the general population is between incidence rate of 18% and 18%. 3 ‰ (Shinfuku, 1992).
Schizophrenia is a group of chronic diseases with unknown etiology, which mostly occurs in young people aged 15-25 years old. It is often characterized by sensory, thinking, emotional, behavioral disorders, uncoordinated mental activities, prolonged course of disease, and often developed into mental activity decline. The prevalence rate of this disease is high, which can reach 6.55 ‰, accounting for about half of the mental disorders (neuropathy is not a mental disease) and about half of the lifetime prevalence rate (13.7 ‰).
This disease seriously damages the mental and physical health of patients, and brings heavy burden to patients’ families and society. Early mainly for personality change, such as ignore relatives, do not talk about health, smile in the mirror, etc. Further development of the disease, that is, the performance of thinking disorders, the patient’s thinking process is lack of logic and coherence, disordered speech, words can not reach the meaning.
In addition, the more typical symptoms, there are delusions and hallucinations. The so-called delusion refers to the imagination without any factual basis, such as thinking that someone is going to murder him, or that he is a great inventor or hero.
The etiology, pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of schizophrenia have always been the central topic of psychiatric research. Traditional medical model emphasizes biological etiology, according to this view, schizophrenia belongs to the disease of unknown cause. Because, since the discovery of pathogenic microorganisms, people are used to regard the etiology of various diseases as a single factor. If a single etiology cannot be found, it is considered as “unknown etiology”. Many common diseases can be considered as unknown causes, such as hypertension, gastric ulcer and so on. Schizophrenia certainly belongs to this category.
- Neurasthenia like state: headache, insomnia, dreaminess, forgetfulness, inattention, fatigue. Although there are many discomfort, there is no painful experience, and they do not take the initiative to seek medical treatment.
- Personality change
People who have always been gentle and quiet suddenly become unreasonable. They lose their temper over trivial matters or are suspicious. They think that people around them can’t get along with them. When they see someone talking, they suspect that they are talking about themselves. Even when others cough, they suspect that they are talking about themselves.
- Abnormal mood
Laugh for no reason, become indifferent to relatives and friends, alienated, that is, do not care about others, also ignore other people’s care for him, or for no reason nervous, anxious, afraid.
In the early stage of schizophrenia, it is characterized by loose thinking, disruptive thinking, logical fallback thinking, interruption of thinking, emergence of thinking (compulsory thinking) or lack of thinking content and pathological symbolic thinking.
Emotional indifference, dullness, emotional incongruity (inappropriate) and emotional inversion or self laughter (silly smile).
They are less active, withdrawn, passive and withdrawn; poor social adaptability and decline of social function; strange behavior, introversion; wrong intention, etc.
Other common symptoms
Delusion is an obvious manifestation of schizophrenia, which is characterized by unsystematic, generalization, absurdity and strangeness; primary delusion (delusion perception); hallucination, mainly verbal auditory hallucination, critical and imperative auditory hallucination, other first-class symptoms such as mental automatism, and catatonia.
- Thinking disorder
It is shown as the language’s loose, confused or wordy. There will be sudden and incomprehensible changes in the theme of speech; sometimes there will be a disturbance caused by marginal association or “symbolism” only understood by patients themselves, so that they can not think logically like normal people.
- Perception disorder
Auditory hallucination is the most common type of hallucination, but it can also be seen as visual hallucination, touch hallucination (including sexual sensation), smell hallucination or smell hallucination. Auditory hallucination can be seen in a variety of diseases, not necessarily schizophrenia; but some auditory hallucinations, especially the voice of auditory hallucination that tells the patient’s actions like live broadcast, or the voice of talking about the patient, often have special diagnostic value.
There are also delusions about hypochondriasis, religion, jealousy and gender identity.
- Symptoms of tension
In the movement aspect of the disorder performance may be from excited restlessness to obvious dullness, as well as numbness or silence. Sometimes “posture” can be seen. The patient takes some strange posture (like nailing on a cross, or keeping his head several inches away from the pillow), which can last for a long time. Sometimes severe disobedience or automatic obedience can be seen. The so-called “appearance” performances, such as soft and artificial gait, grimace, or exaggerated normal movements, are also quite common.
Although mild impulsive behavior is very common in the onset of acute schizophrenia, but the dangerous action caused by imperative auditory hallucination or the behavior of attacking the “persecutor” are relatively rare. Sometimes, there will be some strange atrocities, such as self injury (often involving sexual organs) or murderous sexual assault.