Sleep is the need of life, so people can’t live without sleep, and they have to make up for the lack of sleep every day, otherwise they will be punished, much like paying debts.

From the examination results of sleep instrument, normal people sometimes have no eye movement or only slow floating during sleep, which is a long time; but sometimes the eyes move back and forth quickly, which is a short time, which is different from the EEG changes when the eyes move slowly or fast. Therefore, scientists divide sleep into two parts: non REM sleep and REM sleep. For the convenience of writing, the first capital letter of English abbreviation is used in the literature. Non REM sleep is written as NREM, while REM sleep is written as rem.

The basic rule of normal sleep is that normal adults first enter NREM at the beginning of sleep, from shallow to deep. After about 60-90 minutes, they turn to REM, the duration of REM is only about 10-15 minutes, and then turn to NREM. In this way, NREM and REM appear alternately, 4-6 times a night, until they wake up.

Sleep disorders and diseases

Everyone should follow the basic rules of normal sleep. If there is a disorder in the most basic rules, such as the lack of REM or NREM, or the disorder in the arrangement of NREM and REM, that is, REM occurs at the beginning of sleep instead of NREM, it must be a sleep disorder.

  1. Lack of sleep

Napoleon always wanted to save time from sleep, so he once forced himself to stay up for two to three nights, but he was regretful because he couldn’t resist the attack of “sleepers”. He fell asleep during office hours during the day, and was dizzy all day, with poor memory and low efficiency.

During World War II, due to the lack of labor force, some British military factories decided to extend the working hours of workers to 70 hours a week. In the first 1-2 weeks, the number of products increased steadily. After the third week, it was found that with the increase of production, the scrap rate also increased. Finally, the qualified products produced per hour were far lower than those before working overtime. As a result, the overtime time could only be reduced. Until 54 hours per week, the qualified rate of products reached the peak again.

On the battlefield, before a major campaign, the commander will send a small group of troops to harass the enemy’s front positions at night, so that the enemy can’t sleep all night. As a result, the combat effectiveness of the enemy will be weakened due to lack of sleep and fatigue after the next day’s battle.

  1. Sleep deprivation

In the sleep laboratory, the researchers tried to prevent the subjects from sleeping for several days. As a result, the subjects complained of dizziness, inability to concentrate, memory loss, irritability, irritability, dull expression, sometimes depression, depression and suicidal thoughts. Individual people also have hallucinations, such as hearing others talking to them and seeing strange things. Sometimes they are suspicious, sensitive and always suspicious of others trying to harm themselves, which is very similar to mental illness.

Once the experiment, called sleep deprivation, is completed, the subjects immediately fall into a deep sleep. They will suddenly enter NREM stage II, and then deepen to NREM stages III and IV. In particular, REM appears earlier, longer and more frequently, which indicates that REM has the strongest trend of demanding compensation after being deprived. In turn, REM is very important to people, and any REM deprivation will produce REM compensation and rebound.

  1. Sleep disorders

Sleep disorders include a lot of content, can be divided into three categories: one is too little sleep, insomnia; one is too much sleep, drowsiness; the other is abnormal action in sleep, the so-called abnormal sleep.

There is a section of “sleep and wakefulness disorders” in the revised edition of the second edition of Chinese classification and diagnostic criteria for mental disorders (ccmd-2-r) formulated and approved by the Chinese society of psychiatric Sciences in 1995. This is the current and authoritative classification and diagnostic criteria in China. The excerpts are as follows:

(1) Insomnia refers to the condition that people are dissatisfied with the quality and quantity of sleep for a long time, so the normal sleep time can not be used as the main standard for the diagnosis of insomnia. Anxiety or fear of insomnia can form a vicious circle, so that symptoms persist.

(2) Excessive daytime sleep in narcolepsy is not caused by insufficient sleep, drugs, brain organic diseases or physical diseases, nor is it a part of certain mental disorders (such as neurasthenia and depression).

(3) Sleep walking syndrome usually occurs in the first 1 / 3 period of deep sleep, getting up, walking indoors or outdoors, or doing some routine activities during the day at the same time. Generally, there is no language activity and no answer to questions. Most of them can automatically go back to bed and continue to sleep. When they wake up the next morning, they can’t recall, which is more common in children.

(4) Children with night terrors suddenly scream and cry during sleep, accompanied by panic expressions and movements, as well as vegetative nerve symptoms such as increased heart rate, shortness of breath, sweating and pupil dilation. Usually in the night after sleep within a short period of time, each attack lasts 1 to 10 minutes.

(5) Nightmare from sleep for a nightmare suddenly awakened, the horror of the dream content can be clearly recalled, still palpitating. It usually occurs late in the night sleep.